Urinary tract infections are a common infection caused by bacteria entering the urethra and multiplying in the urinary tract, which includes the kidneys, bladder, urethra and tubes (ureters) that connect them. Of the many types of UTI, bladder infection is the most common. UTIs in children are most common in those under age 2. Untreated infections can spread to the kidney, which can cause permanent damage.
When a muscle ring in a boy’s groin fails to close properly, fluid can back up into the abdomen and create a hydrocele. Injury within the scrotum also can cause the fluid-filled sac. Most hydroceles go away on their own by age 2 and rarely require surgical intervention.
If the opening is larger, a portion of the intestine can pass through the open channel towards the scrotum, resulting in an inguinal hernia. Increased pressure that forces part of the intestines through a weak spot in the abdominal wall also can cause hernias. Surgery is required to repair hernias.