Our research programs fall into two general categories: (1) Pharmacological mechanisms underlying the abuse-related effects of alcohol and other drugs, e.g. stimulants; and (2) neurogenetic mechanisms influencing vulnerability to and treatment of alcohol and drug addiction. To address these research questions, we use in vivo approaches, including self-administration, reinstatement, drug discrimination and quantitative observational techniques. An important component of our research programs is a focus on translational drug discovery, with a long-standing goal of providing important information for discovery and development of novel anti-addiction medications. Additionally, we strive to identify key gene variants that may impact treatment decisions from a “personalized medicine” perspective.