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  • Ranjan Batra, PhD

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    Associate Professor
    Office: R737
    Phone: (601) 984-1652
    Lab: R733; Phone: (601) 984-1648
    E-mail: rbatra@umc.edu

     

    Education

    • BSc, biophysics, University of Gueiph, Ontario, 1976
    • PhD, Institute for Sensory Research, College of Engineering, Syracuse University, 1983

    Research interests

    • Structure and function of auditory pathways

    Current research

    My current research focusses on how the frequency of a sound in analyzed by the brain. Frequency is the single most important attribute of a sound that is encoded by the auditory system, because many aspects of hearing are organized according to this feature. Within the brain, there are several channels that convey information about different aspects of the acoustic environment to higher levels. Each of these channels is organized according to frequency. These channels must merge, because the brain as whole seems to have only one representation of frequency. Presently, I am engaged in studying the process by which these channels merge by using electrophysiological and anatomical techniques.

    Recent publications

    • Batra, R. 2006. Responses of neurons in the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus to sinusoidally amplitude modulated tones. Journal of Neurophysiology 96: 2388-2398.
    • Kuwada, S., D. C. Fitzpatrick, R. Batra and E.-M. Ostapoff. 2006. Sensitivity to interaural time differences in the dorsal nucleus of the lateral lemniscus of the unanesthetized rabbit: comparison with other structures. Journal of Neurophysiology 95: 1309-1322.
    • Batra, R. and T. C. T. Yin. 2004. Cross-correlation by neurons of the medial superior olive: a reexamination. Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology 5: 238-252.
    • Batra, R. 2003. Inferior Colliculus. In: "Encyclopedia of the Neurological Sciences," (J. C. Masdeu, M. Aminoff and R. B. Daroff, eds.), Academic Press, San Diego.
    • Oliver, D. L., G. E. Beckius, D. C. Bishop, W. C. Loftus and R. Batra. 2003. Topography of interaural temporal disparity coding in projections of medial superior olive to inferior colliculus. Journal of Neuroscience 23: 7438-7449.
    • Batra, R. and D. C. Fitzpatrick. 2002. Processing of interaural temporal disparities in the medial division of the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. Journal of Neurophysiology 88: 666-675.
    • Batra, R. and D. C. Fitzpatrick. 2002. Monaural and binaural processing in the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus: a major source of inhibition to the inferior colliculus. Hearing Research 168: 90-97.
    • Fitzpatrick, D. C., S. Kuwada and R. Batra. 2002. Transformations in processing interaural time differences between the superior olivary complex and inferior colliculus: beyond the Jeffress model. Hearing Research 168: 79-89.
    • Fitzpatrick, D. C., S. Kuwada and R. Batra. 2000. Neural sensitivity to interaural time differences: beyond the Jeffress model. Journal of Neuroscience 20: 1605-1615.
    • Batra, R. and D. C. Fitzpatrick. 1999. Discharge patterns of neurons in the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus of the unanesthetized rabbit. Journal of Neurophysiology 82: 1097-1113.
    • Beckius, G. E., R. Batra and D. L. Oliver. 1999. Axons from anteroventral cochlear nucleus that terminate in medial superior olive of cat: observations related to delay lines. Journal of Neuroscience 19: 3146-3161.
    • Fitzpatrick, D. C., S. Kuwada, D. O. Kim, K. Parham and R. Batra. 1999. Responses of neurons to click-pairs as simulated echoes: auditory nerve to auditory cortex. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 106: 3460-3472.
    • Kuwada, S. and R. Batra. 1999. Coding of sound envelopes by inhibitory rebound in neurons of the superior olivary complex in the unanesthetized rabbit. Journal of Neuroscience 19: 2273-2287.
    • Batra, R. and D. C. Fitzpatrick. 1997. Neurons sensitive to interaural temporal disparities in the medial part of the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus. Journal of Neurophysiology 78: 511-515.
    • Batra, R., S. Kuwada and D. C. Fitzpatrick. 1997. Sensitivity to interaural temporal disparities of low- and high-frequency neurons in the superior olivary complex: II. Coincidence detection. Journal of Neurophysiology 78: 1237-1247.
    • Batra, R., S. Kuwada and D. C. Fitzpatrick. 1997. Sensitivity to interaural temporal disparities of low- and high-frequency neurons in the superior olivary complex: I. Heterogeneity of responses. Journal of Neurophysiology 78: 1222-1236.
    • Fitzpatrick, D. C., R. Batra, T. R. Stanford and S. Kuwada. 1997. A neuronal population code for sound localization. Nature 388: 871-874.
    • Kuwada, S., R. Batra and D. C. Fitzpatrick. 1997. Neural processing of binaural temporal cues. In: "Binaural and Spatial Hearing in Real and Virtual Environments," (R. H. Gilke and T. R. Anderson, eds.), Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Mahwah, NJ, pp. 399-425.
    • Kuwada, S., R. Batra, T. C. T. Yin, D. L. Oliver, L. B. Haberly and T. R. Stanford. 1997. Intracellular recordings in response to monaural and binaural stimulation of neurons in the inferior colliculus of the cat. Journal of Neuroscience 17: 7565-7581.
    • Fitzpatrick, D. C., S. Kuwada, R. Batra and C. Trahiotis. 1995. Neural responses to simple simulated echoes in the auditory brainstem of the unanesthetized rabbit. Journal of Neurophysiology 74: 2469-2486.
    • Feng, J. J., S. Kuwada, E.-M. Ostapoff, R. Batra and D. K. Morest. 1994. A physiological and structural study of neuron types in the cochlear nucleus. I. Intracellular responses to acoustic stimulation and current injection. Journal of Comparative Neurology 346: 1-18.
    • Batra, R. 1993. Interaural temporal coding of complex high-frequency sounds: a transformation in the inferior colliculus? In: "Sensory Research: Multimodal Perspective," (R. T. Verrillo, eds.), Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc. Inc., Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 141-50.
    • Batra, R., S. Kuwada and T. S. Stanford. 1993. High-frequency neurons in the inferior colliculus that are sensitive to interaural delays of amplitude-modulated tones: evidence for dual binaural influences. Journal of Neurophysiology 70: 64-80.
    • Stanford, T. R., S. Kuwada and R. Batra. 1992. A comparison of the interaural time sensitivity of neurons in the inferior colliculus and thalamus of the unanesthetized rabbit. Journal of Neuroscience 12: 3200-3216.
    • Batra, R., S. Kuwada and T. R. Stanford. 1989. Temporal coding of envelopes and their interaural delays in the inferior colliculus of the unanesthetized rabbit. Journal of Neurophysiology 61: 257-268.
    • Kuwada, S., R. Batra and T. R. Stanford. 1989. Monaural and binaural response properties of neurons in the inferior colliculus of the rabbit: effects of sodium pentobarbital. Journal of Neurophysiology 61: 269-282.
    • Kuwada, S., T. R. Stanford and R. Batra. 1987. Interaural phase sensitive units in the inferior colliculus of the unanesthetized rabbit. Effects of changing frequency. Journal of Neurophysiology 57: 1338-1360.
    • Batra, R., S. Kuwada and V. L. Maher. 1986. The frequency-following response to continuous tones in humans. Hearing Research 21: 167-177.
    • Kuwada, S., R. Batra and V. L. Maher. 1986. Scalp potentials of normal and hearing-impaired subjects in response to sinusoidally amplitude-modulated tones. Hearing Research 21: 179-192.