• Astrocyte process (in red) covering a blood vessel (in green) in human orbitofrontal cortex

    Astrocyte process (in red) covering a blood vessel (in green) in human orbitofrontal cortex

    Imaging Core

    Grazyna Rajkowska, PhD – Core Director 
    Professor of Psychiatry 
    Head, Lab. Quantitative Neuroanatomy 
    Department of Psychiatry & Human Behavior 
    Guyton Building, Room G106-3 
    Tel: 601-984-5995; fax: (601) 984-5899

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    Mohaddetheh Moulana, PhD - Core Manager 
    Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior 
    Guyton Building, Room G106-2 
    Phone: (601) 984-6696; fax: (601) 984-5899 
    Email: mmoulana@umc.edu 



    As in the case of all areas of neuroscience research, the application of modern methods of cellular imaging are greatly accelerating advancements in the field. The Center’s Imaging Core gives investigators access to state-of-the-art, sophisticated microscope and related equipment with advanced capabilities in the visualization, quantification and interpretation of neuronal systems at the cellular level.

    Dr. Grazyna Rajkowska serves as the core director of the Center for Psychiatric Neuroscience Imaging Core. She is a neuroanatomist with over 30 years of experience in quantitative image analysis of specific types of neurons and glial cells in human postmortem and animal brain tissues. Dr. Rajkowska provides oversight of investigator training in the use of core equipment, the maintenance of core equipment and the supervision of core personnel.

    In addition to the administrative oversight of the Imaging Core, Dr. Rajkowska instructs CPN investigators and other UMMC researchers in the general use of the microscopic imaging equipment and further offers highly specialized expertise in the technical parameters relevant to the design, application and interpretation of quantitative morphological and neurochemical studies. These technical parameters include Western blotting, tissue sectioning and histological staining of human postmortem and animal brain tissues, the application of 3-dimensional cell counting techniques to different types of staining procedures, the determination of optimal conditions for immunohistochemistry and guidance in the anatomical localization of the specific brain regions being studied.  


    The CPN's Imaging Core and UMMC currently support an Imaging Facility providing shared use of the following imaging equipment.

    • Nikon C1 Confocal Scanning Microscope*
      * The Nikon C1 Confocal microscope has been upgraded to C1+. The 4 solid state diode lasers will provide higher outputs and more stable performance than before. DAPI/Hoechst excitation, convenient for microscopists who wish to use multiple fluorescent stains in a single sample, is now possible for use as a nuclear and chromosome counterstain. Up to 3 channel simultaneous acquisition and 5 channel sequential acquisition (4 confocal fluorescence + 1 Transmission/DIC channel) is now possible. Funding for the upgrade was generously provided by the MIND (Memory Impairment and Neurodegenerative Dementia) Center and the Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior.
      confocal NEW.jpg

    • MCID Image Analysis Systems
    • Nikon 600 Light Microscopes
    • Nikon Light Microscopes with MBF Stereoinvestigator and Neurolucida Software
    • Leica Stereomicroscope
    • Fluorescent Microscope 
    • Leica Cryostat

    These sophisticated imaging systems give investigators the ability to visualized confocal images, to estimate, in three-dimensional space, numbers of cells, terminals and the level of specific proteins, giving researchers unprecedented insight into the cellular and molecular composition of brain in health and disease.

    Rates for Imaging Core Services



    Internal Federal

    Internal Non-federal

    External Federal

    External Non-federal






    Light microscope with StereoInvestigator






    Light microscope















    MCID Image Analyzer










    Core Manager time (per hr)